San Lorenzo de El Escorial, also known as El Escorial de Arriba is a town and municipality in the Community of Madrid, Spain, located to the northwest of the region in the southeastern side of the Sierra de Guadarrama, at the foot of Mount Abantos and Las Machotas, 47 kilometres (29 mi) from Madrid. It is head of the same name judicial party.
The settlement is popularly called El Escorial de Arriba, to differentiate it from the neighbouring village of El Escorial, also known as El Escorial de Abajo. The town is approximately 47 kilometres (29 mi) from the capital. The Monastery of El Escorial is the most prominent building in the town and is one of the main Spanish Renaissance monuments. The Valley of the Fallen also falls within the boundaries of the municipality.
The monastery and its historic surroundings were declared a World Heritage Site UNESCO on November 2, 1984, under the name of "El Escorial, monastery and site". The site also enjoys protection on Spain's heritage register; since June 21, 2006, it has been protected by the Community of Madrid as a Property of Cultural Interest.
The town has an important historical-artistic, urban and cultural heritage, a result of its link with the Spanish crown. It adds relevant ecological, geological and archaeological values. Part of the monument is listed with the heritage UNESCO. In addition, this site has been awarded good of cultural interest, in the category of historical sites, with the name of "Escorial: monastery, natural and cultural environment", from the community of Madrid.
The last legal figure, approved by Decree 52/2006 (June 21), also includes the towns of El Escorial, Zarzalejo and Saint Mary of the Alameda. This is the area which was within the so-called domain of Philip II, with which the monarch delineated the perimeter of the royal site in the area around the Monasterio.
World Heritage sites
On November 2, 1984, together with the celebration of the IV centenary of the placement of the last stone during the monastery's construction, the World Heritage Committee (World Heritage Committee) of the UNESCO, meeting in Buenos Aires Argentina), included "El Escurial, monastery and site" on the list of the heritage (World Heritage List).
This entry defines territorial protection for the Monasterio de El Escorial, the Casita of Infante (or up) and the Casita del Principe (or down), Palace, El Escorial: "' Monasterio de El Escorial" '. This building, one of the main monuments renacentistas Spain, was erected in the last third of the 16th century on the mount Abantos, slope 3,373 ft (1,028 m). Juan Bautista de Toledo, originated the project that was finished, after his death, by Juan de Herrera, who imposed a new architectural style.
The territorial scope of protection laid down in the list of the heritage is currently in the process of being enlargement. The Spanish authorities intend to extend the UNESCOheritage declaration to all the space that was included within the original decree of Philip II.
The municipality of San Lorenzo de El Escorial and other historical-artistic group have been incorporated into the legal figure of the historical territory (historical site) of "El Escorial: monastery, site and natural and cultural environment", according to Decree 52/2006 (June 21 BOCM) community of Madrid.
Here are different buildings and natural enclaves located within its Township and other located El Escorial, Zarzalejo and Saint Mary of the Alameda. Monumental sets and landscape sanlorentinos are highlighted below:
Festivals and traditions
- Houses of offices
- Park of the Casita
- Del Castañar
- The Herrería
- Casita del Infante
- Valley of the fallen
- Casita del Príncipe
The people of San Lorenzo hold their feasts on August 10, the day of the feast of San Lorenzo Lorenzo mártir, the saint to which Philip II of Spain dedicated the Monasterio de El Escorial to and that, by extension, the municipality takes its name. This building was built to commemorate the victory of the battle of San Quintín, which took place on August 10, 1557.
The pilgrimage of Our Lady, Virgin of Grace is without a doubt the most important tradition of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. It occurs at the beginning of September among the religious masses in Spain. Since 1948 it has been declared tourist attractions by the community of Madrid.
Holy week in San Lorenzo stands out as one of the of great visual richnesses of the Guadarrameña region. At Christmastime, large crowds take to the streets to commemorate the Bethlehem nativity scene where Christ was born.