Livorno is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.
The Venice district retains much of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, narrow lanes, the noblemen's houses and a dense network of canals which once linked the port to its storehouses. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Livorno, by then grown up and open to the world, had a lively appearance marked by neo-classical buildings, public parks housing important museums and cultural institutions, "Liberty" villas with sea views and the market.
The Museo Mascagnano houses memorabilia, documents and operas by the great composer Pietro Mascagni. Every year some of his operas are traditionally played during the lyric music season, which is organised by the Traditional Theatre of Livorno. Also the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway divided from the sea by a handrail, is named in honor to Pietro Mascagni.
Up in the hills the Sanctuary of Montenero, which is dedicated to Our Lady of Graces, the patron saint of Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-voti mainly connected to stories of miraculous sea rescue.
The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument of the Four Moors"), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici of Tuscany, is one of the most important monuments of Livorno. An important square, the Piazza della Repubblica, contains two important monuments of Italian politicians. The square is also a bridge, under which there lies a large canal.
Another important monument is an old red-brick fortress "Fortezza Nuova" which, in Medici times, defended the city from attack by pirates. Its three bastions are named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. The original fortress was built before the Renaissance. A later one was constructed at the end of the 16th century. Leghorn is home to the Italian Naval Academy as well as several smaller colleges.