Orlova is a town in the Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. According to legend, Mieszko, a Silesian duke from the lower branch of the Piast dynasty, went hunting with his pregnant wife, Ludmiła. As they rested upon a hill, an eagle suddenly took flight, frightening the couple. The eagle dropped his prey, which fell to earth near them. Ludmiła prematurely gave birth to her child, Kazimierz. The couple, seeing a sign from God in this incident, founded a chapel on that spot and later named the subsequent settlement after the eagle (Polish: orzeł, Czech: orel). Thus, it is not clear when the settlement was really founded; however, it was first mentioned in a written document in 1223, and four years later the name of the village appears in documents.
At the beginning of the 20th century Orlová became an important center of Polish and Czech education and home to many cultural and sport organizations of both communities. There were also a Jewish and a German community in the town. After the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, the town became part of Czechoslovakia. Orlová gained town rights in 1922. During the workers' strike in 1925 four workers were killed by the police. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938, Orlová and the whole Zaolzie region were annexed by Poland.