Muswellbrook is a town in the Upper Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, about 243 km (151 mi) north of Sydney and 127 km (79 mi) north-west of Newcastle. At the 2011 census, Muswellbrook had a population of 11,420. The current population of the district, including Denman, is about 15,420. Geologically, Muswellbrook is situated in the northern parts of the Sydney basin, bordering the New England region.
The area is predominantly known for coal mining and horse breeding, but has also developed a reputation for gourmet food and wine production. Located to the south of the Muswellbrook township are two coal fuelled power stations, Liddell and Bayswater. They were commissioned in 1973 and mid 1980s respectively and employ approximately 500 people from the area.
Before European settlement of the region the Wonnarua and Kamilaroi peoples occupied the land. The first European to explore the area was Chief Constable John Howe in 1819, with the first white settlement occurring in the 1820s. The township of Muswellbrook was gazetted in 1833. To the south, "Forbestown" was established by the sons of Francis Forbes in 1842; the name was changed in 1848 to "South Muswellbrook" to prevent confusion with the town of Forbes.