Kopli cemetery (German: Friedhof von Ziegelskoppel or German: Kirchhof von Ziegelskoppel; Estonian: Kopli kalmistu) was Estonia's largest Lutheran Baltic German cemetery, located in the suburb of Kopli in Tallinn. It contained thousands of graves of prominent citizens of Tallinn and stood for over 170 years from 1774 to shortly after World War II when it was completely flattened and destroyed by the Soviet occupation authorities governing the country at the time. The former cemetery is now a public park.
Between 1771 and 1772, Catherine the Great, empress of the Russian empire, issued an edict which decreed that from that point on no-one who died (regardless of their social standing or class origins) was to be buried in a church crypt or churchyard; all burials were to take place in the new cemeteries to be built throughout the entire Russian empire, which were to be located outside town boundaries.
These measures were intended to overcome the congestion of urban church crypts and graveyards, and were prompted by a number of outbreaks of highly contagious diseases linked to inadequate burial practices in urban areas, especially the black plague which had led to the Plague Riot in Moscow in 1771.
Against this background the cemetery at Kopli was founded in 1774 on the outskirts of Tallinn. Divided into a 2 sections, the western part was used for the deceased belonging to the Niguliste (Nikolai) church parish, while the eastern part was reserved for those of the Oleviste (St Olai, Olaf) church parish.