Kumana National Park in Sri Lanka is renowned for its avifauna, particularly its large flocks of migratory waterfowl and wading birds. The park is 391 kilometers southeast of Colombo on Sri Lanka's southeastern coast. Kumana is contiguous with Yala National Park. Kumana was formerly known as Yala East National Park, but changed to its present name in 5 September 2006. Kumana Bird Sanctuary, declared in 1938, is included within the Kumana National Park. Kumana is one of the most important bird nesting and breeding grounds in Sri Lanka.
255 species of birds have been recorded in the national park. During April–July months tens of thousands of birds migrate to the Kumana swamp area annually. Rare species such as Black-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant and Great Thick-knee are breeding inhabitants of the Kumana villu. Waders belonging to families Scolopacidae and Charadriidae are among the visitors to the area along with waterfowl. Pintail Snipes migrate here flying 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi) to 11,000 kilometers (6,800 mi) from Siberia. Asian Openbill, Glossy Ibis, Indian Pond Heron, and Little Grebe are the bird species migrate here in large flocks.
Tilapia and Mullet are the commonly fished varieties in the area while Channa spp. is also caught occasionally. Mugger Crocodile and Indian Black Turtle are the common reptiles inhabiting the park. Mammals such as Golden Jackal, Wild Boar, Sri Lankan Elephant, European Otter, and Fishing Cat also visit the swamp to feed. The number of elephants roaming in the Kumana is estimated at 30-40.