Lahugala Kitulana National Park is one of the smallest national parks in Sri Lanka. Despite its land area, the park is an important habitat for Sri Lankan Elephant and endemic birds of Sri Lanka. Lahugala Kitulana is situated 318 km east of Colombo. The national park's vegetation is classified into Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests. Dominant grass species Sacciolepis interrupta is a main food source for elephants. Common floral species of the park include Drypetes sepiaria, Manilkara hexandra, Berrya cordifolia, Vitex pinnata, Chloroxylon swietenia, Golden Shower Tree.
This national park is used by elephants traditionally as a feeding ground. A herd of 150 individuals is attracted by Sacciolepis interrupta grass which is common around the Lahugala tank. Endemic Toque Macaque, Tufted Gray Langur, Sri Lanka Leopard, Sri Lankan Sambar Deer, Indian Pangolin and Indian Hare are the other mammals found in the park.
Many wetland birds found in Lahugala Kitulana include Great White Pelican, Purple Heron, Painted Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Anas spp. and Woolly-necked Stork are also recorded visiting the wetland. Last recorded sighting of Knob-billed Duck, now thought be extinct in Sri Lanka, occurred in here. Red-faced Malkoha and Sri Lanka Spurfowl are two endemic birds that reside in the park. Endemic Bufo atukoralei, Fejervarya limnocharis, Polypedates maculatus, Banded bull frog, and Microhyla rubra are among the amphibians of the national park. Python molurus, Rat snake, Chrysopelea spp. Boiga spp., Dryophis spp., and Russell's viper are among the notable reptiles.