The National Taiwan Library (Chinese: 國立中央圖書館臺灣分館; pinyin: Guólì Zhōngyāng Túshūguǎn Táiwān Fēnguǎn) is the oldest public library in Taiwan. Founded in 1914, the library is home to a large collection of documents concerning the history, culture, politics and geography of Taiwan.
The library was founded in 1914 during the Japanese colonial period as the Imperial Taiwan Library (Kyūjitai; 臺灣總督府圖書館; Shinjitai: 台湾総督府図書館, Taiwan Sōtokufu Toshokan) on the order of governor Sakuma Samata. The library's first permanent home on Bo'ai Road (博愛路) in Taipei was destroyed in a United States bombing raid during World War II.
After the Nationalists took over control of the island following Japan's defeat in World War II, the library was renamed the Taiwan Provincial Library (Chinese: 臺灣省圖書館; pinyin: Táiwān-Shěng Túshūguǎn) and moved to temporary accommodation. The implication of this name, as well as all the subsequent names, is that Taiwan is only one part of the Republic of China.
In 1947, it was again renamed, this time to Taiwan Provincial Taipei Library (Chinese: 臺灣省立臺北圖書館; pinyin: Táiwān Shěnglì Táiběi Túshūguǎn) and it was under this name that the library was relocated to Xinsheng South Road (新生南路) in 1963.