The Old City of Zuoying (Chinese: 左營舊城; pinyin: Zuǒyíng Jiùchéng), also known as the Old City of Fengshan County (Chinese: 鳳山縣舊城; pinyin: Fèngshān Xiàn Jiùchéng), is a walled city located in Zuoying District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. It was built during the Qing rule period and is one of the first Taiwanese cities fortified by a defensive wall. The city was administrated under the Fongshan County (鳳山縣) of the Taiwan Prefecture (台灣府).
Tsoying was a major juncture of the Kaohsiung plain, and therefore possesses strategic advantages. Nearby mountains such as the Turtle Mountain (龜山) and the Snake Mountain (蛇山) created nature barriers, making the place easily defensible. In 1684, Taiwan was annexed by the Qing Dynasty, which favored the strategic advantages the place provided. The Qing government set up the Fongshan County seat in Hsinglungchuang (興隆庄) and built government buildings and Confucian Temples, gaining its significance.
The early Qing dynasty prohibited the construction of defensive walls in Taiwan to prevent rebellions, so the city never obtained its wall until 1721. In 1721, Chu Yi-kuei (朱一貴) led a rebellion in southern Taiwan and captured the county, which had no protection, and ruined many government buildings. After the incident, Qing permitted building defensive walls in Taiwan. The governor of Tsoying County Liou Kwang-shi (劉光泗) built the first city wall made of mud with a moat system in 1722.
In 1787, the city wall was broken through during the occurrence of the Lin Shuang-wen incident (林爽文事件). The wall was destroyed by the rebels. At the time, the local officials thought the walled city was an unlucky place, therefore decided to move the county seat to Pitouchieh (埤頭街; present-day Fongshan City). However, the move of the county seat did not stop invasions. In 1805, Tsai Chien (蔡牽), who claimed to be the "Sea-calming Majestic King"(鎮海威武王), led a rebellion and still broke into the walled city.
The government planned to move the city back to Hsinglungchuang in 1807, but it was not financially possible. Until 1824, when Yang Liang-bin led a rebellion and the residents were extremely panicked. As a result, the government collected donations from peasants as well as government officials and put together about 140,000 silver yuans (of which three-fourths were contributed by the civilians). The construction started in 1825 and a whole new stone wall was completely built in 1826. At the time, it was one of the most advanced city wall in Taiwan.
Soon later, however, it was rumored that the governor died of a disease. The residents thought his death was an unlucky sign and refused to move to the new city. The new walled city was left unused until 1853 when the Qing government ordered the move of the county seat. According to documents, some important government buildings in the city were the administration office (文武衙署), the record office (典史署), and the defense office (守備署); there were temples which worshiped Matsu, Confucius, and Guan Yu.