Tukuyu, known as Neu Langenburg during the German colonial rule, is a small, of 50,000 inhabitants, hillside town that lies about 36 miles (58 km) south of the city of Mbeya, at an elevation of around 5,000 ft (1,500 m) in the highland Rungwe District of southern Tanzania, East Africa. The local language is colloquial Nyakyusa together with the national language Swahili. Secondary and college education is done in the English language. The people are the Nyakyusa, although localised groups give themselves different local names.
The town was originally founded in 1900 by the German Imperial regime as the colonial town of Neu Langenburg, named after the original Langenburg on the shores of Lake Nyassa which had to be given up due to rising sea levels. It was an important regional centre under the Germans and consequently there is an important Lutheran presence here, including a hospital. According to the 1920 Deutsches Koloniallexikon two of the ten shops were operated by Europeans and the police force, composed of "coloureds", was 66 men strong.